The Pregnancy

The specialists on line can esplain all problems and doubts about pregnancy.





Fertilization begins when the Sperm (Male Gamete) and the Ovum (Female Gamete) membranes fuse and ends when the two gametes unite to form a single diploid zygote. The union marks the beginning of the development of a new potential human being.
The Serm is a cell specialized to swim. It has a head where it is the genetical informations (DNA), included in the 23 Paternal Chromosomes, and a Flagellum that allow the Sperm to swim.
The Ovum cell is a spherical, big cell with an external membrane and an great quantity of fluid rich in proteins and in specialized Organelles (Cytoplasm). The Ovum also contains the DNA included in the 23 maternal Chromosomes.
At the end of the sexual union, the Sperms must travel through the Cervical canal that joins the Vagina with the Uterus. In the Cercal canal the Sperms can stop and relax a little. Then they have to cross the Uterus and the uterine tubes to meet the Ovum. Only one Sperm will enter in the Ovum where the 23 Paternal Chromosomes will join with the 23 Maternal Chromosomes to form the new human being.
Question about whether the zygote is "alive" or "viable" are question for clergy and ethicists. Pratically speaking, the conceptus is alive and developing after fertilization but is not capable of indipendent survival outside of the uterus until after the sixth month of pregnancy.


Soon after fertilization occurs, the zygote begins to divide by mitosis into increasing number of cells called Blastomeres. After several cleavages, the conceptus has become a ball of cells called Morula. Next, a cavity called Blastocele forms inside, and the conceptus now becomes a Blastocyst. The Blastocyst attaches itself to the wall of the Endometrium, inside the Uterus. Implantation signals the beginning of an intimate interaction between the maternal blood supply and the developing conceptus. The Embryonal period ends with the third month of prengnancy. This is a critical period because a lot of environmental factors and some drugs can interfere with the development of the Embryo.


From the 12th weeek the new human being (the Fetus) is almost completely made. Heart, Kidneys, Brain, Legs, Arms and almost all anatomic components are visible and work. Only the Lungs and the sex organs have to complete the development. The other organs like muscles, bones, Liver etc, have to grow. This is a good period for the psycophisical state of the woman. The last two months will be more difficult cause the weight and the anxiety for the delivery. The environmental and farmacologic factors that are so dangerous for the Embryo, could cause now a limitation in the grow of the Fetus. The Fetus Can move like the Embryo and the mother now can perceive the movements. The Fetus can also hear, taste and smel. So after the birth the baby will recognize the mother.


Amniotic fluid surrounds and protects the fetus in the amniotic cavity. Il provides a cushion against the constricting confines of the gravid uterus, allowing the fetus room for movement and growth and protecting it from external trauma. The space around the fetus is necessary for the normal development and maturation of the fetal lungs. It also promotes normal development of limbs by permitting periodic movements. The fluid bathing the fetus helps mantain the fetal body temperature.The mechanism of amiotic fluid production is complex. The major source are the amniotic membrane, the fetal urine and the fetal respiratory system. Abnormality of fluid volume can interfere directly with fetal development. Abnormal amount or appearance of the fluid may also be an indirect sign of an underlying disorder.


The Placenta functions as the primary site of nutrient and gas exchange between the fetal and maternal circulations. The maternal blood, that is rich in Oxigen and nutrients, circulate in the maternal site of the placenta. A membrane divides the maternal site from the fetal site, but the nutrients can cross it in the two direction. At term the Placenta has a circulare shape, the weight is 300-500 gr.and it is delivery after the fetus.